This is when the Marconi Company decided it was not enough to have a 1kW transmitter each in Calcutta and Bombay. These transmitters were small and away from the government’s sight. If the government were to spend money on installing a stronger one in Delhi, its hands would thereafter be tied and it would not speak of shutting down the radio ever again.
So Marconi wheeled and dealed to get the government to install a 20kW transmitter in Delhi. They also went to Peshawar and installed a 10kW transmitter there at their own expense, telling the Frontier government that it was very important for its voice to reach the tribes and it could experiment with the transmitter for free; if the experiment worked, they could pay for it, otherwise Marconi would just take the transmitter back.
The central government was unsure which ministry to make responsible for radio. It fit neither into the Public Works Department nor into Irrigation. After much consideration, this hopeless and helpless department was handed over to the Post Office.
In the 331-page book, we outline the background and overall vision for the Internet of Things and M2M communications and services, including major standards. We cover all relevant and key technologies including everything from sensors, actuators and devices used for instrumenting the physical world through sensor networks, wide area and cellular networks to the cloud-based infrastructures containing software to collect and process the vast amount of different data produced. We also describe how the data is the basis for deriving useful information and knowledge, and how to integrate that into enterprise processes. There are also a number of architecture activities ongoing, from ETSI M2M to more end-to-end architectures coming out as state-of-the-art from the research community, and we of course cover those as well.
If you are looking for more technical details, these are standards that we cover and put into their right contexts: IEEE 802.15.4, 3GPP (GPRS, 3G, 4G), Bluetooth Low Energy/Smart, IETF 6LoWPAN, IETF CoAP, IETF RPL, Power Line Communication, Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Sensor Web Enablement (SWE), ZigBee, 802.11, Broadband Forum TR-069, Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) Device Management (DM), ETSI M2M, ISA100.11a, WirelessHART, M-BUS, Wireless M-BUS, KNX, RFID, Object Management Group (OMG) Business Process Modelling Notation (BPMN).
The enabling technologies we explain include: Embedded systems hardware and software, devices and gateways, capillary and M2M area networks, local and wide area networking, M2M Service Enablement, IoT data management and data warehousing, data analytics and big data, complex event processing and stream analytics, knowledge discovery and management, business process and enterprise integration, Software as a Service and cloud computing.
Finally, we also describe a number of IoT use cases. As there are endless usages of IoT, we limited ourselves to the following: Asset Management like e-Maintenance; Industrial Automation; the Smart Grid including metering, smart houses, energy in a city perspective; Commercial Building Automation; Smart Cities; and lastly Participatory Sensing, also known as Urban Sensing which is a sort of crowdsourcing approach to Internet of Things.
Enrique Peña Nieto fue el campeón de los bots (robots para crear mensajes) y derrochó recursos sin lograr revertir oleadas de opiniones en su contra; Andrés Manuel López Obrador con su página amlo.si acrecentó una comunidad fiel, pero le faltó tiempo para extenderla, y Josefina Vázquez Mota arrancó bien para después enredarse en los yerros de su campaña. Los investigadores Guillermo Pérezbolde, Eva Sander y Claudia Benassini ubican las fallas en que los candidatos dialogaron poco o nada con la población y reprodujeron las trampas de tierra comprando bots o escenificando artificiosas guerras tuiteras. “Tristemente los estrategas se fueron mucho por los vanity metrics, las estadísticas de la vanidad (número de seguidores o de me gusta en Facebook) y no dialogaron con los ciudadanos”, afirma Sander, directora de estrategia de la empresa Ondore y especialista en nuevos medios. En vez de preocuparse por interactuar, los candidatos se dedicaron a transmitir mensajes para que la gente los consumiera como si fueran programas de televisión o de radio. Nunca dijeron: ciudadano, platícame cuáles son tus inquietudes, ¿qué te gustaría que hiciera? ¿Por qué no estás de acuerdo con esta propuesta?, concluye Pérezbolde, vicepresidente de la Asociación Mexicana de Internet (Amipci).
Every robot journalist first needs to ingest a bunch of data. Data rich domains like weather were some of the first to have practical natural language generation systems. Now we’re seeing a lot of robot journalism applied to sports and finance — domains where the data can be standardized and made fairly clean. The development of sensor journalism may provide entirely new troves of data for producing automated stories. Key here is having clean and comprehensive data, so if you’re working in a domain that’s still stuck with PDFs or sparse access, the robots haven’t gotten there yet.