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We compete very broadly for a share of members’ time and spending, against linear networks, pay-per-view content, DVD watching, other Internet networks, video games, web browsing, magazine reading, video piracy, and much more. Over the coming years, most of these forms of entertainment will improve. Linear networks have mostly exclusive content against each other, and this is increasingly true for Internet networks. Piracy and pay-per-view are the only two competitors that offer a nearly full set of TV show and movie content. We call competitors for entertainment time and spending “competitors-for-time”. We call the narrower set of firms that do bid against us for content “competitors-for-content”. The network that we think is likely to be our biggest long-term competitor-for-content is HBO. In the USA for example, HBO recently won long-term exclusive domestic movie output deals with Universal and Fox. HBO bids against us on many original content projects though is not currently a bidder against us for prior-season television from other networks. HBO has global reach and a strengthening technology capacity. In addition to HBO, there are Amazon Prime Instant Video in the USA and UK, Hulu in the USA, Now TV in the UK, Viaplay in the Nordics, Clarovideo in Latin America, and many cable and broadcast networks in various territories. Amazon and Hulu are spending heavily and commissioning their own original programming, presumably because they see the same exciting big picture for Internet TV that we do. Many consumers will subscribe to multiple services if they each have unique compelling content. Success relative to these competitors-for-content would mean us having substantially larger revenue and therefore sustainably increasing content, tech and marketing spending, leading to further growth, and a virtuous cycle.

The battle between Twitter and Facebook has made both products worse and caused weird restrictions to users on both sides, such as the walls both companies have installed between Twitter and Instagram. Twitter is now ultra-paranoid, defensive, aggressive, and full of annoying ads. Facebook’s core product is a mess as it continually tries (and fails) to capture the usage and style of Twitter, while annoying people more and more to keep its ads effective. (At least Facebook is consistent: they’ve always been getting worse.)

Worse – Marco.org via everybody

This paper analyses the application of competition policy regulation and its effect on market conduct and performance through the case study of communication satellite broadcasting in Japan. Focusing on structural regulations such as vertical separation and conduct regulations such as open access, this paper questions whether regulations have effectively led to contestable markets by examining the shareholding relationships of major player SKY PerfecTV. Findings presented here suggest that regulation designed in principle to achieve performance-oriented goals of contestability and diversity actually impaired the functioning of the market and the ability of industry players to obtain an adequate return on investment.

This paper analyses the application of competition policy regulation and its effect on market conduct and performance through the case study of communication satellite broadcasting in Japan. Focusing on structural regulations such as vertical separation and conduct regulations such as open access, this paper questions whether regulations have effectively led to contestable markets by examining the shareholding relationships of major player SKY PerfecTV. Findings presented here suggest that regulation designed in principle to achieve performance-oriented goals of contestability and diversity actually impaired the functioning of the market and the ability of industry players to obtain an adequate return on investment.

The Federal Communications Commission regulates local media ownership to promote competition, diversity and the provision of local programming. This study investigates how local media cross-ownership, co-ownership and ownership diversity are associated with media market outcomes. Cross-sectional regressions indicate that television station ownership consolidation is associated with increased local TV news production but lower news ratings. However, panel estimation finds that changes in local media ownership are uncorrelated with local media usage or programming, producing confidence intervals that are tightly centered around zero.