concerning current business and societal conditions in Poland, and daily press publications. Shadowing: In-situ observation of the daily work and informal conversations involving the actors provided views of the new work routines in the company, the topics, nature and sources of business information, and also richness of language and expressions used in the daily work-worlds of the company. In her shadowing activities, the field observation could best be described in terms used by Schwartz & Jacobs, (1979:46) as carrying out “observation in the presence of others on an ongoing basis and having some nominal status for them as someone who is part of their daily lives”. The observer took notes and recorded them at the site shortly after the observation was completed. As the researcher spoke the language, her presence in the observed workplaces was not obtrusive, more natural and accepted. Sometimes, however, the employees became curious about, in the words of one employee, “what she could discover about their work that they themselves did not know.” Document reviews: The field study also included reviews of documents and artefacts relating both to the operations of the company and to then-current trends in the business and societal climates within which the enterprises operated. Document-reviews used materials from the company as well as other sources, for example, working papers from research institutes, information concerning current business and societal conditions in Poland, and daily press publications. These examinations were intended to uncover information related to observations in the company and which could enhance understanding the communication process. Media coverage, especially print media, provided contemporary local and national background information in the areas of societal values and economical conditions. The print media helped to uncover various marginal events and those not officially pronounced or masked. Field impressions: Together with shadowing, field impressions of the working environment and physical facilities were recorded. For example, private (non-state) telephone lines and highly advanced office equipment such as computers were notable features, as they were not found in state-owned companies at the time. The company was particularly proud of its relatively luxurious offices, technical innovations and high performance standards.Data quality: The field study used interpretative methods to gather the data and was guided by criteria developed by Guba & Lincoln, (1982). Their argument was that the collection of data has to meet three criteria: first, truth-value, or internal validity or credibility; second, applicability, described as transferability or external validity; and third, consistency, that is, reliability or dependability. The design and methods of the field study were focused on meeting these three criteria. Having used the reports, narratives, and voices of the organizational actors enhances truth-value in the data. Confidence in the credibility of the actors’ reports and narratives is also enhanced by the capability of the field researcher for speaking and understanding the language and the similarities between her education and work experiences and those of the organizational actors in the study. That the field researcher could personally understand and, 9

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